CZ Silicon Wafer

CZ Silicon Wafer

CZ silicon (Si) wafer produced by PAM-XIAMEN is grown by Czochralski (CZ) method, which is the mainstream technology for monocrystalline silicon growth with low cost established in the 1950s. In Czochralski method, the raw poly-silicon block is put into a quartz crucible, heated and melted in a single crystal furnace, and then a rod-shaped seed (seed crystal) with a diameter of only 10 mm is immersed in the melt. At a suitable temperature, the silicon atoms in the melt will be arranged along the silicon atoms of the seed and form regular crystals at the solid-liquid interface to become single crystals. Czochralski method can be used to manufacture 2 “, 4”, 8”, 12“ semiconductor polished wafers, epitaxial wafers, SOI and other semiconductor silicon wafers, mainly used in logic, memory chips and low-power integrated circuit components.

Description

1. Specifications of CZ Silicon Wafer

1.1 12 inch CZ Silicon Wafer

12 inch CZ Silicon Wafer
Item Parameters
Material Monocrystalline Silicon
Grade Prime Grade
Growth Method CZ
Diameter 300.0±0.3mm, 12″ 300.0±0.3mm, 12″ 300.0±0.3mm, 12″
Conductivity type Intrinsic N Type P Type
Dopant Undoped Phosphorus Boron
Orientation [111]±0.5° [100]±0.5° (100)±0.5°
Thickness 500±15μm 500±25μm 775±25μm
Resistivity >10,000Ωcm 0-10Ωcm 1-10Ωcm
RRV <40% (ASTM F81 Plan C)
SEMI STD Notch SEMI STD Notch SEMI STD Notch SEMI STD Notch
Surface Finish 1SP, SSP
One-Side-Epi-Ready-Polished,
Back Side Etched
1SP, SSP
One Side Polished
Back Side Acid Etched
1SP, SSP
One Side Polished
Back Side Acid Etched
Edge Rounded Edge Rounded Per SEMI Standard Edge Rounded Per SEMI Standard Edge Rounded Per SEMI Standard
Particle <20counts @0.3μm
Roughness <1nm
TTV <10um <10um <10um
Bow/Warp <30um <40um <40um
TIR <5µm
Oxygen Content <2E16/cm3
Carbon Content <2E16/cm3
OISF <50/cm²
STIR (15x15mm) <1.5µm
Surface Metal Contamination
Fe,Zn, Cu,Ni, K,Cr
≤5E10 atoms/cm2
Dislocation Density SEMI STD SEMI STD 500 max/ cm2
Chips, scratches, bumps, haze, touch marks, orange peel, pits, cracks, dirt, contamination All None
Laser Mark SEMI STD Option Laser Serialized:
Shallow laser
Along The Flat
On The Front Side

 

1.2 8 inch CZ Silicon Wafer with TTV<6μm

8 inch CZ Silicon Wafer with TTV<6μm
Item Parameters
Material Monocrystalline Silicon
Grade Prime Grade
Growth Method CZ
Diameter 200.0±0.5mm, 8″ 200.0±0.5mm, 8″ 200.0±0.2mm, 8″
Conductivity type P Type P Type P Type
Dopant Boron Boron Boron
Orientation [111]±0.5° [100]±0.5° (111)±0.5°
Thickness 1,000±15μm 725±50μm 1,000±25 μm
Resistivity <1Ωcm 10-40Ωcm <100 Ωcm
RRV <40% (ASTM F81 Plan C)
SEMI STD Notch SEMI STD Notch SEMI STD Notch SEMI STD Notch
Surface Finish 1SP, SSP
One-Side-Epi-Ready-Polished,
Back Side Etched
1SP, SSP
One Side Polished
Back Side Acid Etched
1SP, SSP
One Side Polished
Back Side Acid Etched
Edge Rounded Edge Rounded Per SEMI Standard Chamfer width 250-350μm Edge Rounded Per SEMI Standard
Particle <10counts @0.3μm <20counts @0.3μm <10counts @0.3μm
Roughness <1nm
TTV <6um <10um <6um
Bow/Warp <60um <40um <60um
TIR <5µm
Oxygen Content <2E16/cm3
Carbon Content <2E16/cm3
OISF <50/cm²
STIR (15x15mm) <1.5µm
Surface Metal Contamination
Fe,Zn, Cu,Ni, K,Cr
≤5E10 atoms/cm2
Dislocation Density SEMI STD SEMI STD < 10-2 cm-2
Chips, scratches, bumps, haze, touch marks, orange peel, pits, cracks, dirt, contamination All None
Laser Mark SEMI STD Option Laser Serialized:
Shallow laser
Along The Flat
On The Front Side

 

1.3 6 inch CZ Silicon Wafer with Particle<20counts @0.3μm

6 inch CZ Silicon Wafer with Particle<20counts @0.3μm
Item Parameters
Material Monocrystalline Silicon
Grade Prime Grade
Growth Method CZ
Diameter 6″(150.0±0.5mm)
Conductivity type P Type P Type P Type
Dopant Boron Boron Boron
Orientation <111>±0.5° [111]±1° (100)±0.5°
Thickness 675±25μm 675±10μm
1,000±25µm
675±25μm
Resistivity 0.1-13Ωcm 0.01-0.02 Ωcm 1-100Ωcm
RRV <40% (ASTM F81 Plan C)
Primary Flat SEMI STD SEMI STD SEMI STD
Secondary Flat SEMI STD SEMI STD SEMI STD
Surface Finish 1SP, SSP
One Side Polished, Epi-ready
Back Side Acid Etched
1SP, SSP
One Side Polished
Back Side Acid Etched
1SP, SSP
One Side Polished
Back Side Acid Etched
Edge Rounded Edge Rounded Per SEMI Standard Edge Rounded Per SEMI Standard Edge Rounded Per SEMI Standard
Particle <20counts @0.3μm ≤10@≥0.3μm
Roughness <0.5nm <1nm <0.5nm
TTV <10um <10um <12um
Bow/Warp <30um <40um <60um
TIR <5µm
Oxygen Content <2E16/cm3
Carbon Content <2E16/cm3
OISF <50/cm²
STIR (15x15mm) <1.5µm
Surface Metal Contamination
Na, Al, K, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn
≤5E10 atoms/cm2
Dislocation Density SEMI STD SEMI STD 500 max/ cm2
Chips, scratches, bumps, haze, touch marks, orange peel, pits, cracks, dirt, contamination All None All None Tarnish, orange peel, contamination, haze, micro scratch, chips, edge chips, crack, crow feet, pin hole, pits, dent, waviness, smudge&scar on the back side: all none
Laser Mark SEMI STD SEMI STD SEMI STD

 

1.4 4 inch CZ Silicon Wafer

4 inch CZ Silicon Wafer
Item Parameters
Material Monocrystalline Silicon
Grade Prime Grade
Growth Method CZ
Diameter 4″(100.0±0.5mm)
Conductivity type P or N type P Type
Dopant Boron or Phosphorus Boron
Orientation <100>±0.5° (100) or (111)±0.5°
Thickness 525±25μm 525±25μm 300±25μm
Resistivity 1-20Ωcm 0.002 – 0.003Ωcm 5-10Ohmcm
RRV <40% (ASTM F81 Plan C)
Primary Flat SEMI STD Flats SEMI STD Flats 32.5+/-2.5mm, @110±1°
Secondary Flat SEMI STD Flats SEMI STD Flats 18±2mm, @90°±5° to Primary Flat
Surface Finish One-Side-Epi-Ready-Polished,
Back Side Etched
Edge Rounded Edge Rounded Per SEMI Standard
Particle <20counts @0.3μm
Roughness <0.5nm
TTV <10um
Bow/Warp <40um
TIR <5µm
Oxygen Content <2E16/cm3
Carbon Content <2E16/cm3
OISF <50/cm²
STIR (15x15mm) <1.5µm
Surface Metal Contamination
Fe,Zn, Cu,Ni, K,Cr
≤5E10 atoms/cm2
Dislocation Density 500 max/ cm2
Chips, scratches, bumps, haze, touch marks, orange peel, pits, cracks, dirt, contamination All None
Laser Mark Along The Flat
On The Front Side,option Laser Serialized:
Shallow laser

 

1.5 2 inch CZ Si Wafer

2 inch CZ Silicon Wafer
Item Parameters
Material Monocrystalline Silicon
Grade Prime Grade
Growth Method CZ
Diameter  2″(50.8±0.5mm)
Conductivity type P or N type P Type
Dopant Boron or Phosphorus Boron
Orientation <100> (100) or (111)± 0.5°
Thickness 150±25μm 275±25μm
Resistivity 1-200Ωcm 0.01-0.02Ωcm
RRV <40% (ASTM F81 Plan C)
Primary Flat SEMI STD Flats
Secondary Flat SEMI STD Flats
Surface Finish One Side Polished
Back Side Acid Etched
Particle <20counts @0.3μm
Roughness <0.5nm <0.5nm
TTV <10um <10um
Bow/Warp <30um <20um
TIR <5µm
Oxygen Content <2E16/cm3
Carbon Content <2E16/cm3
OISF <50/cm²
STIR (15x15mm) <1.5µm
Surface Metal Contamination
Fe,Zn, Cu,Ni, K,Cr
≤5E10 atoms/cm²
Dislocations None
Chips, scratches, bumps, haze, touch marks, orange peel, pits, cracks, dirt, contamination All None

 

2. Nitrogen in Czochralski Process of Silicon Wafers

Nitrogen plays a very important role in CZ silicon ingots, and a small amount of nitrogen doping will have a beneficial effect on the performance of single crystal silicon. There are many methods for actively adding nitrogen: Using nitrogen protection during the CZ silicon crystal growing process or adding silicon nitride powder to the molten silicon; and nitrogen ion implantation. At a temperature of about 1415 degrees, the saturated solubility of nitrogen in silicon melt and single crystal silicon is 6×1018cm-3 and 4.5×1015cm-3, respectively. Since the equilibrium segregation coefficient of nitrogen in silicon is 7×10-4, the concentration of nitrogen during the growth of silicone CZ is generally less than 5×1015 cm-3.

The interaction of nitrogen and oxygen in Czochralski single crystal silicon can form a nitrogen-oxygen complex, which exhibits multiple absorption peaks in the mid-infrared and far-infrared absorption spectra. The nitrogen-oxygen complex is a kind of shallow donor and has electrical activity. Combining infrared absorption and resistivity tests, it can be found that with the disappearance of the infrared absorption peak of the nitrogen-oxygen complex during the annealing process, the resistivity or carrier concentration of the single crystal silicon wafer semiconductor will change accordingly. The electrical activity of the nitrogen-oxygen complex can be eliminated by high-temperature annealing. Doping nitrogen in CZ single crystal Si wafer has an inhibitory effect on the formation of thermal donors and new donors.

Doping nitrogen into large-size Czochralski silicon can change the size and density of void-type defects, so that the void-type defects can be easily eliminated by high-temperature annealing. In addition, the nitrogen can enhance the warpage resistance of CZ Si substrate and improve the yield of integrated circuits fabricated on Czochralski process silicon wafer.

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